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China

Yearbook 1997

China. With Deng Xiaoping's demise and Hong Kong's return, 1997 became a historic year for China. On February 19, Deng, the man who, with "China's Second Revolution", drastically developed the world's largest nation. The death did not come unexpectedly because he was old and ill. China mourned but tight and restrained by orders from the regime, which feared that opposites could use the grief to create concern. Also the funeral in Beijing on February 25 in front of 10,000 guests was low-key. Deng turned 92 but never, as he hoped, saw Hong Kong change from British to Chinese flag. On the other hand, at the ceremony on July 1, there was Head of State and Party Jiang Zemin and Prime Minister Li Peng.

1997 ChinaAt the Communist Party's 15th Congress in Beijing in September, 71-year-old Jiang reaffirmed his position as supreme leader. Congress passed his urges that China's economic reforms must continue into the next century and that Deng's thesis on "socialism with Chinese signatures" - in effect market control when appropriate - should be incorporated into the party's statutes. Jiang also announced cuts to the defense by 500,000 men. On the burdensome state companies, one of China's biggest problems, he said that different forms of ownership must be tried - a cautious opening for privatization. Two conceivable rivals to Jiang after Deng's death - Qiao Shi and Liu Huaqing - had to leave the party's core, the Political Bureau's standing committee. Zhu Rongji emerged as the prime candidate to become head of government in 1998 after Li Peng. Despite the burden from the state sector, with over 100 million. employees, the economy went ahead for high winds with expected annual growth of 9-10%. But unemployment also rose, and the number of jobseekers migrating was said to exceed 70 million.

According to Countryaah, foreign policy Jiang Zemin marked his country's great power rank with visiting Moscow in April and the United States in October. Boris Yeltsin made a response visit in Beijing in November, where the presidents highlighted an old Russian-Chinese conflict over the countries' 430-mile-long eastern border.

Shortly before Jiang's state visit to the United States, China signed the United Nations Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - one of the two major UN human rights treaties. The visit and its summit with President Bill Clinton in Washington on October 29 saw Jiang himself as a success despite continued open disagreement on human rights. China promised to break his civilian nuclear cooperation with Iran against buying US nuclear technology.

Two weeks after Jiang's return in November, Democratic campaigner Wei Jingsheng was released after nearly 18 years in prison and allowed to fly to the United States. Wei said in New York that the departure was the authorities' condition for a release and that he intended to return as soon as possible.

In the northwestern province of Xinjiang, Muslim Uighurs continued their campaign for increased self-government. The riots in the city of Yinang and the crackdown on buses in the provincial capital of Ür邦mqi in February took at least 20 people's lives. The authorities responded with a series of executions of people convicted of terrorism and other crimes.

1997 China

The traditional Chinese society

The main feature of traditional Chinese society is the tremendous stability. No other community can exhibit similar stability since it emerged 5,000 years ago in the Huanghe - Yellow River area. This is linked to the ruling structure that was built after the more classic feudal system collapsed 200 years before year 0. Emperor Qin Shihuan assumed absolute power, introduced the language of the screed based on ideograms that have survived to our day and which did it allows people to communicate across different spoken languages. He consolidated the new Chinese mindset through the burning of old books and the execution of older sages.

The country was led by a central government official. The feudal privileges were abolished and replaced by land ownership. As a result of these changes, new classes of landlords, free farmers and landless farmers grew.

The civil service was gradually recruited through a public exam system where everyone could participate in principle. This reform had been completed during the Sung dynasty (960-1280). It was this civil service or bureaucracy that was the stabilizing factor in Chinese society, and which remained largely unchanged throughout all crises and conquests.

The ideological framework for the Chinese community was the Confucian ethics that was developed by Sage K'ung Fu-tzu (551-479 BCE) This philosophy emphasized respect for the elderly, in faithfulness, in individual responsibility within the social hierarchy and on the fundamental role of the family. During the same period, Tao Te Ching was written by Lao Zi. Tao Te can be translated as "the path of virtue". The work emphasizes simplicity, naturalness and spontaneity as the basis of the philosophy of life known as Taoism.

China differs from other major civilizations in that the central power has never been based on a religion. Confucian doctrine concentrated on the relationship between people and refrained from speculation about the beyond. Human rights and duties were emphasized. Society was hierarchically ruled with the emperor at the top. Confucianism was the foundation of the public exam system that all officials had to go through. In its basic features, Confucianism was strongly conservative, socially conservative and state-building.

Up to modern times, the Confucian doctrine was dominant in the Chinese upper class. Well, other systems such as Taoism also emerged, and through Chinese travelers Buddhism also invaded China, but no one was able to dispossess the dominant position of Confucianism. The same was true of Christianity. The dominant position of Confucianism can also explain the Chinese state's tolerant attitude towards other religions. This is in sharp contrast to the European intolerant attitude.

Chinese society rested on three foundations: the emperor / civil servant, the landlord class, and the peasants. The peasants produced the profits that maintained the civil service and the landlord class. There was a close connection between the civil service and the landlords. It was from the landlord class that the civil service was recruited. Although, in principle, the official work was open to all who passed the exam, only the wealthy could afford to give their sons the long and difficult education required by the exam.

The officials invested their income in land, retired as landlords, and the landlords and their children advanced to officials. It was important for the village's elite to have good contact with the central bureaucracy so that it could receive support for eg. to build channels. This support could be obtained if an upper-class representative in the village advanced to official.

The landlords did not participate in the field work. They spent time studying the classics and the arts. The villages had a relatively large local autonomy. The officials posted in the districts had little local knowledge and therefore depended on cooperation with the local elite. The village elite and officials seized the profits of the peasants and the lessees. The landowner elite therefore depended on a strong central power that could maintain peace and order, while the central power depended on the landlords as a recruitment base for the civil service and to keep the farmers under control. Traditional China can therefore be best characterized, not as a feudal society in the classical European sense, but as an agricultural bureaucracy ("land bureaucracy").

The landlord class was interested in a large population because this pushed the price down when farmers were to lease land. But at the same time the price did not have to be pushed down so far that the poor peasants revolted. Therefore, there was a constant tension between the desire of the central power and the landlords for peace and stability and the desire to squeeze a larger profit out of the peasants. The Chinese big-family system was also an important factor in preventing the poor peasants from joining together and starting an uprising. Poor peasants who belonged to a large clan could get some support from their rich relatives. A landowner who did not have gifted children or who did not have children at all could also ensure that poor relatives received education and became officials. Authorities also provided for the existence of grain stocks to address the years when the harvest failed.

However, this did not prevent numerous peasant revolts in China's history. But a victorious rebellion depended on the civil service. Only that could govern the country; The same was true of foreign conquerors. This led to everything, in fact, remaining old.

The agricultural bureaucracy guarded its privileges and prevented the emergence of other classes, which could make the rank unconstitutional. The level of trade was kept under control. Partly by imposing taxes, partly by bureaucratically controlled state monopolies.

 

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